1. This report is a result of a joint survey conducted by the
Department of Fisheries of Brunei Darussalam and the team from
Training Department of SEAFDEC in 2004. The background information
and current status of different fishing gears were based on the
annual fishery statistics(unpublished) in 2004.
2. In this report, the classification of fishing gear for Brunei
Darussalam is presented with the description of each group. This
was based on the system presented by FAO entitled “Definition
and Classification of Fishing Gear Categories.” The classification
of fishing gear is presented below.
3.1. The horizontal length of surrounding nets, purse seines and
fill nets is drawn according to the length of the float line,
and the vertical depth according to the fully stretched netting.
In the case of gill nets with sidelines,the depth is drawn according
to their length. The width of netting panels or sections of trawl
gear is drawn according to half the stretched netting, and the
depth or length according to fully stretched netting. Some gears
are shown by schematic or partly perspective overall sketches,
with dimensions indicated where applicable.
3.2. The general outline of drawings such as the rig of the complete
gear and detailed drawings of components are mostly not to scale,
but the main dimensions are given.
4. The dimensions are only given in meters (m) and millimeters
(mm).The units are not indicated but can easily be recognized,
5. Meters: Length of footrope, headlines, floatlines, etc., used
with one decimal (e.g., 5.2, 98.7)
6. Millimeters: Mesh size (stretched, diameters of ropes,
floats, etc., used without a point or with one decimal only (e.g.
12, 525, or 1.2, 38.2)
7. The mesh size (in millimeters, mm) is understood to be
the distance between the centers of the two opposite knots in
the same mesh when fully stretched.
8. The number of meshes in a straight row along the edges indicates
the width and length or depth of net panels or sections.
FAD = Fish aggregating device also known as lawa-lawa in local
Hp = horsepower (the capacity of the vessel engine)
GPS = Global positioning satellite
LOA = Length of Overall (length of the vessel from the bow to
PA = Polyamide
PE = Polyethylene
Nm = Nautical miles
FISHING GEAR CLASSIFICATION
IN BRUNEI DARUSSALAM
GROUPS OF FISHING GEAR ANDGENERAL DESCRIPTIONS
Fishing gears and
Various methods to catch fish and other aquatic resources, with
or without a gear, have always been practiced in many countries
including Brunei Darussalam. Although the fundamental principles,
i.e. filtering the water, luring and outwitting the prey and hunting,
are the basis for most of the fishing gears and methods used even
today, gears and methods have changed significantly over time,
especially with the invention of synthetic materials and electronic
gadgets, and their capture efficiency is obviously hardly comparable
to that of prehistoric times.
A fishing gear is the tool with which aquatic resources are captured,
whereas the fishing method is how the gear is used. Gear also
includes harvesting organisms when no particular gear (tool) or
boat is involved. Furthermore, the same fishing gear can be used
in different ways by different fishers. A common way to classify
fishing gears and methods is based on the principles of how the
fishes or other preys are captured and, to a lesser extent, on
the gear construction or gear materials used.
Following FAO’s definition and classification, the main
categories of fishing gears in Brunei Darussalam are as follows:
The net is roughly rectangular in shape without a distinct bag.
It is set vertically in water to surround the school of fish,
generally of pelagic nature. The nets are subdivided into three
categories: one-boat seine, two-boat seine; and surrounding net
without purse line. The one-boat purse seine is commonly used
in Brunei Darussalam waters.
(2) Seine nets
Seine nets are cone-shaped net with two wings wherein the wings
are normally larger than those of trawl nets. The net is pulled
towards a stationary boat or onto a beach.
A conical bag-shaped net with two or more wings, pulled by one
or two boats for a period, to catch mainly demersal fish or other
aquatic animals that live directly on, or stay near the seabed.
The trawl is subdivided into three major types: bottom trawl,
pair trawl and beam trawl.
(4) Lift net
A sheet of net, usually square, but may sometimes be conical,
is mounted either by several rods and ropes, or on a frame and
is either at the bottom or in mid-water for some time and then
lifted to trap the fish lying above it.
(5) Falling gear
The gear is usually a cone-shaped net that is dropped to cover
aquatic animals and trap them. Generally it is hand-operated in
shallow waters but some are operated from a boat like the stick-held
cast net for catching squid.
(6) Gill nets
Gill nets are curtain-like net that are fitted
with sinkers on the lower end and floats on the upper end and
are set transversely to the path of migrating fish. Fish trying
to make their way through the net wall are entangled, gilled or
enmeshed in the mesh.
(7) Scoop nets
A bag-shaped net with fixed or variable opening and is usually
operated in shallow waters. The gear catching mechanism is done
by filtering a certain volume of water and trapping the fish into
it in a scooping manner.
The gear is set or stationed in the water for a certain period
to trap moving fish in the water. Trapping is made with the use
of a non-return valve fitted in the entrance of the gear. The
gear may or may not include a netting material.
(9) Hook and Line
The gear generally consists of line(s) and hook(s)
to which artificial or edible baits are attached to lure and catch
fishes or other aquatic animals.
(10) Other Fishing Gears And Methods
This group covers a variety of fishing gears and methods not classified
with the above groups such as the use of gleaning along the shore
for shellfish, seaweed or fish.